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Putting Manual J, D and S to Work for Your Denver Home
Installing a heating and cooling system, and its subsequent operation, add significant cost to homeownership. The Air Conditioning Contractors for America (ACCA) would like to see these costs decreased and energy efficiency increased. Manuals J, D and S work to these ends, but what, exactly, are these manuals?
Coming to Terms With J, D and S
Manuals J, D and S compile standards and protocol for the design and installation of HVAC equipment and ductwork. Developed by ACCA, each manual is valuable on its own but also acts as a precursor to the next standard.
Consider the Code
The 2006 International Residential Code requires the installation of heating and cooling equipment using the ACCA Manual J calculations and its resulting duct work according to Manual D methods. The intent is to rule out guesstimations and prevent the installation of oversized systems. These standards save money and energy.
Uniqueness Plays a Role
The uniqueness of each home and its location play a role. As you are likely well aware, homes in Denver differ in size, type and the ability to deal with the area’s climate conditions compared to residences in other areas. Therefore, one size or one calculation does not fit all when it comes to HVAC systems.
These calculations can be complicated. Before computers, installers figured out the right sizes of systems manually. Now, determinations are often made through the use of spreadsheets or with the help of software. Though a fee is associated with these products, installers and homeowners alike save time and mental frustration. The computer-based calculations are worth the investment. So, what defines Manuals J, D and S?
When installing an HVAC system, a calculation of heating and cooling loads effectively identifies the size of the system needed. In other words, Manual J calculations reveal the heat loss and heat gain under peak conditions in any given room of your home. Figures on the heating load, cooling load, and latent cooling load are the results from Manual J.
However, a system’s load includes more than the size of the space (known as its envelope). Other considerations include:
— Size, shape and direction of the house.
— The presence of windows and doors.
— Wall, ceiling, window and door attributes.
— Insulation quantities.
— Appliance and lighting loads.
— Human considerations.
Carefully calculating heating and cooling loads results in several advantages.
— Properly sized system for optimum performance.
— No guesswork as to size needed.
— Cost reductions.
— Increased comfort.
— Improved air quality.
Manual J calculations pave the way to the next ACCA standard.
System designs and testing vary by manufacturer. In other words, specifications for each HVAC unit differ. The specification guide for the equipment you are considering helps during the selection process so you can find the correct product for your home’s needs. Comparing Manual J calculations with system specs increases the chance of a perfect fit.
Selecting the right system for your home ensures efficient and proper heating and cooling. An HVAC contractor or designer is a valuable asset when making this determination. Be aware that some installers recommend products based on a relationship with the distributor. Others help you consider factors such as:
— Installation experience.
— Known performance.
— Parts availability.
Finding a system which best fits your home’s heat and cool load calculations moves you to the next protocol.
The type, size and location of a room or home dictate the correct cubic feet per minute (cfm) per space needed for proper duct design.
Choose Ducts and Fittings
Measuring this volume of air moving through the ventilation system (cfm) allows you to choose the ducts and fittings to create an efficient system. Air resistance or friction, plus needed air control, determine the type of ducts or fittings required to complete your HVAC system. Completing Manual D calculations puts you on the path to efficient HVAC comfort.
How Did All of This Come About?
These are smart codes and considerations, but how did they come about?
HVAC Systems of the Past
Previously, oversized heating systems managed the needs of most homes. In other words, to comfortably heat a house, an oversized system was installed to ensure the job got done. Cheap energy allowed for this plan (despite the waste) and the ample heating of Denver houses. For cooling equipment, an old measure of size continues to be used for many homes. In fact, it dates back to the “ice ages” (when homes were cooled with ice). Oversized systems are the result, and those waste money in hidden ways. Condensation and resultant mold growth in ducts and on walls from humidity in the cooled air cause problems in many cases. In general, oversized units:
— Raise costs.
— Waste energy.
— Offer decreased performance.
— Tend to short cycle.
— Provide less comfort.
Changes for Today
Today, even the thought of a mismanaged and new HVAC system probably makes you cringe. As you might guess, oversized systems are inefficient and wasteful. With our growing “green” awareness, these systems no longer make sense nor prove fruitful.
With 30 to 200 percent oversizing typical in systems within the United States, these ACCA codes bring needed change when municipalities and states enforce them. Therefore, it is important to find installers or consultants experienced in Manual J, S and D calculations.
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